About this article. Moreover, there are few prevention programs that have incorporated both problem gambling risk and protective factors, as well as general risk and protective factors for adolescent risk behaviour. Delfabbro, P. Therefore, problem gamblers would likely show more resistance to change their attitudes because they are in consonance with their behaviour. The effectiveness of preventive initiatives that have focused on both types have not been well established and only a few studies have used this approach. The Christie hospital declined to comment. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, — Article Google Scholar Zuckerman, M. University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.